In press

*indicates undergraduate advisee,  +middle authors in alphabetical order

Nina Wale & Meghan A. Duffy

The use and underuse of model systems in infectious disease ecology & evolutionary biology.

Accepted at The American Naturalist. doi: 10.22541/au.160624837.74716780/v1




Greischar, M., Alexander, H., Bashey, F., Bento, A., Bhattacharya, A., Bushman, M., Childs, L., Daversa, D.,  Day, T., Faust, C., Gallagher, M., Gandon, S., Glidden, C., Halliday, F., Hanley, K., Kamiya, T., Read, A., Schwabl, P., Sweeny, A., Tate, A., Thompson, R., Wale, N., Wearing, H., Yeh, P. & Mideo, N+ (2020) 

Evolutionary consequences of feedbacks between within-host competition and disease control. 

Evolution, Medicine & Public Health doi: 10.1093/emph/eoaa004 


Wale, N., Jones, M.J., Sim, D.G, Read, A.F & King, A.A. (2019)

The contribution of host cell-directed vs. parasite-directed immunity to the disease and dynamics of malaria infections. 

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116 (44) 22386–22392. 

doi: 10.1073/pnas.1908147116


Wale, N., Turrill, M.K.*, & Duffy, M.A. (2019)

A colorful killer: Daphnia infected with the bacterium Spirobacillus cienkowskii exhibit unexpected color variation. 

Ecology100 (3) e02562 

doi: 10.1002/ecy.2562


Bresciani, L., Lemos, L.N, Wale, N., Lin, J.Y., Strauss, A.T., Duffy, M.A. & Rodrigues, J.L.M. (2018)

Draft genome sequence of "Candidatus Spirobacillus cienkowskii," a pathogen of freshwater Daphnia species reconstructed from hemolymph metagenomic reads. 

Microbiology Resource Announcements. 7 (22) 301175-78. doi: 10.1128/MRA.01175-18


Wale, N., Sim, D.G., Jones, M.J., Salathe, R., Day, T. & Read, A.F (2017)

Resource limitation prevents the emergence of drug resistance by intensifying within-host competition.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114 (52) 13774-13779. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1715874115

This article was featured in The Atlantic & several other news outlets. I received the Gilbert S. Omenn Award & the W. D. Hamilton Award for this work.


Wale, N., Sim, D.G. & Read, A.F. (2017)

A nutrient mediates intraspecific competition between rodent malaria parasites in vivo.

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. 284: 20171067.

doi: 10.1098/rspb.2017.1067


Kouyos, R.D., Metcalf, C.J.E., Birger. R., Klein, E.Y., zur Wiesch, P.A., Ankomah, P., Arinaminpathy, N., Bogich, T.L., Bonhoeffer, S., Brower, C., Chi-Johnston, G., Cohen, E., Day, T., Greenhouse, B., Huijben, S., Metlay, J., Mideo, N., Pollitt, L.C., Read, A.F., Smith, D.L., Standley, C., Wale, N. & Grenfell, B.+ (2014)

The path of least resistance: aggressive or moderate treatment. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. 281: 20140566. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0566


​Vandegrift, K.J., Wale, N. & Epstein, J.H. (2011)

An ecological & conservation perspective on advances in the applied virology of zoonoses.

Viruses. 3: 370-397. 

doi: 10.3390/v3040379



Speaking at the EEID meeting, 2016. Photo credit Jessica Abbate